Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 - 66(7)
Santosh G Honavar
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2018 66(7):889-892
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2018 66(7):893-894
Jyoti Matalia, Shoruba Dinakaran, Hemant Anaspure
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2018 66(7):895-895
Giridhar Anantharaman, Jay Sheth, Muna Bhende, Raja Narayanan, Sundaram Natarajan, Anand Rajendran, George Manayath, Parveen Sen, Rupak Biswas, Alay Banker, Charu Gupta
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2018 66(7):896-908
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of exudative maculopathy in Asians as against Wet age-related macular degeneration in Caucasians. A panel of retinal experts methodically evaluated pertinent updated literature on PCV with thorough PubMed/MEDLINE search. Based on this, the panel agreed upon and proposed the current consensus recommendations in the diagnosis (clinical and imaging), management and follow-up schedule of PCV. Diagnosis of PCV should be based on the gold standard indocyanine green angiography which demonstrates early nodular hyperfluorescence signifying the polyp with additional features such as abnormal vascular network (AVN). Optical coherence tomography is an excellent adjuvant for diagnosing PCV, monitoring disease activity, and decision-making regarding the treatment. Current treatment modalities for PCV include photodynamic therapy, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and thermal laser. Choice of specific treatment modality and prognosis depends on multiple factors such as the location and size of PCV lesion, presence or absence of polyp with residual AVN, amount of submacular hemorrhage, presence or absence of leakage on fundus fluorescein angiography, visual acuity, and so on. Current recommendations would be invaluable for the treating physician in diagnosing PCV and in formulating the best possible individualized treatment strategy for optimal outcomes in PCV management.
P Mahesh Shanmugam, Rajesh Ramanjulu, K C Divyansh Mishra, Pradeep Sagar
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2018 66(7):909-915
Scleral buckling is a surgical technique that is employed successfully to treat rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) for more than 60 years. With the introduction of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), there is a growing trend towards the use of PPV for treatment of retinal detachment. There is a reluctance to perform scleral buckling (SB) in RRD due to the perceived steep learning curve, declining mastery over indirect ophthalmoscopy, and poor ergonomics associated with SB. In this article, we discuss the surgical challenges and tips to overcome these in four headings: localization of the break, retinopexy, SB, and subretinal fluid (SRF) drainage. Localization of the break can be performed by the use of forceps or illuminated scleral depressor. It can be facilitated by prior drainage of SRF in cases with bullous RRD. Chandelier with wide-angle viewing system can be used for easier localization of break and cryopexy. Sutureless buckling and suprachoroidal buckling are easier and faster alternatives to the conventional technique. Reshaping the silicone segment helps in accommodating the wider circumferential band. Modified needle drainage, laser choroidotomy, and infusion-assisted drainage can make SRF drainage easier and safer. The above techniques and other practical tips have been explained in detail with the illustrations to make the process of learning the art of SB easier.