Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 - 68(8)
Santosh G Honavar
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(8):1515-1518
Md Shahid Alam, Subham Sinha Roy, Vikas Khetan
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(8):1519-1519
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(8):1520-1525
Asthenopic and related symptoms are a major problem in school-going children. With the inception of computers and other gadgets for near work, the unseen problems arising out of constant and continuous near work, are on the rise. Parents wander from pillar to post, seeking respite from their child's constant complaints from near work; but despite best spectacle correction and avoidance of excessive near work, the complaints continue. Studies have shown that the majority of these problems arise from defects in accommodation, even in a young child. Therefore, various aspects of accommodation deficiencies have to be studied clinically, detected, and treated to ameliorate the symptoms.
Arvind K Morya, Sonalika Gogia, Arushi Gupta, Sujeet Prakash, Kanchan Solanki, Anushree D Naidu
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(8):1526-1532
The aim of this review article is to summarize the available literature on physiologic and pathologic ocular changes during pregnancy and the effect of diseases in pregnancy. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library in English. In addition, the cited references in the published articles were manually reviewed for the relevant results. Pregnancy encompasses a multitude of changes in all body systems, including the visual system of the female. The changes can be physiological, i.e., changes occurring in the lids and adnexa, cornea, conjunctiva, changes in tear film composition and intraocular pressure, retina, choroid, and visual field. Pathological changes in a pregnant woman's eye include changes related to preeclampsia and eclampsia, central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal artery or vein occlusions, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Preexisting diseases like diabetic retinopathy, Graves' disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, various inflammatory conditions can undergo changes in their course during pregnancy. Ophthalmic medications can have an effect on both mother and the baby and hence should be used cautiously. In addition, intrauterine infections play a major role in causing inflammation in the eye of the baby. Hence, vaccination of the mother prior to pregnancy plays an important role in preventing intrauterine infections in the neonate. A regular eye examination in the perinatal period plays a vital role in recognizing ophthalmic pathologies which might require a prompt medical intervention. Pathological ocular diseases should be discriminated from physiologic changes to establish an individualized treatment or preventive plan. This approach to ocular benefits of treatment to the mother should always weigh against the potential harm to the fetus.
Snehal Turakhia, Yeshwant Saoji, Aditya Goyal, Prema Chande, Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Nagaraju Konda, Nilesh Thite, Deepak K Bagga, Jayanta Bhattacharjee, Rajeev Prasad, Sanjay Mishra, Lakshmi Shinde
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020 68(8):1533-1539
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption in everyone's lives globally. Optometrists, being primary health care professionals are at a higher risk of infection in their practices during these testing times. Optometrists and optical store owners need practically implementable guidelines as lockdown gets lifted in various parts of our country. As these practices gear up to provide eye examination and vision correction to people, they need to take necessary precautions to avoid any cross contaminations. Optometry Council of India guidelines were circulated among optometry and optical associations and among experts in various optometry specialty. A consensus among various bodies were arrived. These guidelines provide recommendation for optical and optometry practices.